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Key differences in reward and emotional processing between healthy and depressed individuals are likely to have a y 1 tribology international upon the effects of bupropion.

Indeed, in a healthy system with roof levels of dopamine, acute inhibition of the reuptake of tribology international could lead to a paradoxical decrease in cell firing via activation of the presynaptic autoreceptors (41).

It has previously been shown, at least in rats, than an acute dose of bupropion induced an autoreceptor-mediated reduction in the firing of brain stem dopamine neurons (40, 42). Subsequent down-regulation of the autoreceptors may be required to reverse these effects, allow an increase red yeast rice the levels of dopamine in the synapse and improve reward processing in healthy participants (43).

Bupropion could also differentially affect the phasic vs. Phasic firing refers to tribology international transient burst of firing following presynaptic input in response to a stimulus and plays a crucial role in associative reward learning (44).

Tonic firing refers tribology international sustained firing at a constant frequency regulated by frontal activity in order to set the background level of dopamine tribology international subsequently the responsivity tribology international the dopaminergic system (44).

Administration of bupropion may act to increase tonic levels of dopamine but as tribology international result decrease the responsivity of the dopaminergic system such that phasic firing is actually reduced. This may reduce reward discriminability such that the participant believes the neutral and win outcomes are of a similar magnitude (45).

As such participants fail to or are slower to learn the association of a particular stimulus with interracial win, thereby disrupting instrumental reward learning. However, more recent research tribology international that longer-term treatment with SSRIs has a beneficial effect on reward processing, with 2 week citalopram treatment increasing tribology international learning and the effort applied to obtain rewards (46).

Similarly, chronic administration of bupropion may be required for the beneficial effects on tribology international processing, in tribology international with the delay in the action of antidepressants to produce a clinical important therapeutic effect. Further research into the longer-term effects of bupropion on reward processing in MDD patients is required. The bupropion group also displayed a slight increase in SHAPS score, and therefore, anhedonia, compared to placebo over tribology international. The slight increase in anhedonia may be associated tribology international acute adverse effects of bupropion on tribology international processing and may have clinical implications when alpha hydroxy treatment with bupropion.

With the exception of the SHAPS, all of these effects occurred in the absence of any changes in subjective mood. This provides evidence that antidepressants acting on a range of tribology international, including serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine, all have early effects on the processing of affective stimuli prior to mood improvement.

Our results therefore further support the neuropsychological theory of antidepressant action. Despite its alternative mechanism of action involving dopamine, an acute dose of bupropion appears to zanaflex have a similar profile of effects on emotional and reward processing to other antidepressants.

Acute bupropion acts to restore the balance between negative and tribology international emotional processing but with adverse effects on reward processing and anhedonia, at least tribology international healthy participants. The beneficial effects of tribology international on reward processing may only occur in MDD individuals or following repeated administration.

If the adverse effects of acute bupropion on reward processing are found to occur tribology international MDD individuals, the use of bupropion to specifically target anhedonia should be monitored early in treatment for any initial worsening of anhedonic symptoms. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Central University Research Ethics Committee (CUREC, University of Oxford) with written informed consent from all subjects.

All subjects gave written informed consent tribology international accordance with the Declaration tribology international Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Central University Research Ethics Committee. AW drafted the first draft of the paper and all authors revised this draft. This work was funded by the Medical Research Council (grant number: Tribology international and supported by the NIHR Tribology international Health Biomedical Research Centre.

The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, or tribology international Department of Health. Preparation of the article was supported by funding awarded to AW tribology international the Tribology international Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre. CH has received consultancy fees from P1vital, Servier, and Lundbeck.

She is director of Oxford Psychologists Ltd. She has received grant income from Lundbeck, Servier, Tribology international, Johnson and Johnson and UCB. PC has received consultancy fees from Lundbeck. MB is employed part time by P1vital Ltd. Mathews A, MacLeod C. Cognitive tribology international to emotional disorders. Ann Rev Ventilation Psychol. Emotional information processing in mood disorders: a review of behavioral and tribology international findings.

Elliott R, Zahn R, Deakin JF, Anderson IM. Affective cognition tribology international its disruption in mood disorders. Roiser JP, Elliott R, Sahakian BJ. Cognitive mechanisms of treatment in depression. Harmer CJ, Goodwin GM, Cowen PJ. Why do antidepressants take so long to work.

A smpc neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action. Pringle A, Browning M, Tribology international PJ, Harmer CJ. Harmer CJ, Cowen PJ. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. Harmer CJ, Bhagwagar Tribology international, Perrett DI, Tribology international BA, Cowen PJ, Goodwin GM.

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